Situation in South Sudan – Report of the Secretary-General (S/2022/156) [EN/AR] – South Sudan – ReliefWeb

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South Sudan
I. Introduction
1. The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2567 (2021), by which the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to 15 March 2022 and requested the Secretary-General to report on the implementation of the Mission’s mandate every 90 days. The report covers political and security developments, the humanitarian and human rights situation and progress towards the implementation of the Mission’s mandate since the previous report, dated 7 December 2021 (S/2021/1015).
II. Political and economic developments
2. On 31 December, in his New Year’s remarks, the President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir, outlined the challenges faced by South Sudan in 2021, namely, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, flooding and lingering economic hardships. He noted, however, that the ceasefire had continued to hold, most of the state legislatures had been reconstituted, and the forces of the parties were in training sites awaiting graduation and subsequent unification. Mr. Kiir also reiterated his commitment to the implementation of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan.
Implementation of the Revitalized Agreement
3. On 9 December, the Interim Chairperson of the reconstituted Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission, Major General Charles Tai Gituai, expressed concern over the continued delays in the implementation of the transitional security arrangements, including the unification of forces and their redeployment. He urged the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity to conclude the outstanding tasks in the remaining months of the transitional period.
4. On 14 December, the Joint Defence Board initiated the screening and registration of the necessary unified forces after receiving funds from the National Transitional Committee.
5. On 20 December, the reconstituted Transitional National Legislative Assembly passed the constitutional amendment bill (2021), paving the way for the incorporation of the Revitalized Agreement into the Constitution.
Peace process developments
6. On 2 December, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-Army in Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) held its fourth National Liberation Council meeting in Juba, where the First Vice-President, Riek Machar, called upon party leaders to mobilize for the 2023 elections and strengthen the organization from the grass-roots level. However, he expressed doubt as to whether the elections would be held on time, stating that, until the security arrangements and the permanent constitution-making process were implemented in full, the transition could not be completed.
7. On 6 December, the South Sudan Opposition Movements Alliance (SSOMA) factions led by Pagan Amum and General Paul Malong, respectively, expressed their readiness to resume talks with the Government. In that connection, from 14 to 17 December, the Community of Sant’Egidio, in collaboration with the Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring and Verification Mechanism and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), convened a technical workshop on the ceasefire agreement in Nairobi. During the workshop, the parties were informed of their obligations, and the modalities for the implementation mechanism were outlined. In a communiqué following the workshop, the two factions agreed to be fully incorporated into the structures of the Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring and Verification Mechanism by the end of March 2022.
8. On 16 January, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Kitgwang faction of SPLM/A-IO signed an agreement in Khartoum. The agreement was signed by the leader of the Kitgwang faction, Simon Gatwech Dual, and his deputy, Johnson Olony. The agreement provides for amnesty for the Kitgwang faction, for the recommitment of the parties to the ceasefire under the Khartoum Declaration of Agreement between the Parties of the Conflict of South Sudan, and for the establishment of coordination offices in Juba.
9. On the same day, SPLM signed a second agreement with the Agwelek forces, led by Johnson Olony, the Khartoum Peace Agreement. The agreement addresses inter-ethnic differences and provides for the establishment of the Shilluk area boundaries in accordance with the 1956 maps. In addition, under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the integration of the Agwelek forces into the South Sudan People’s Defence Forces is facilitated, and negotiated political positions are allocated.
10. On 17 January, Mr. Kiir issued a decree granting amnesty to the Kitgwang faction of SPLM/A-IO, led by Simon Gatwech Dual, and to the Agwelek forces, led by Johnson Olony.
Political developments
11. On 3 January, the Speaker of the parliament, Jemma Nunu Kumba, named the chairpersons and deputies of the parliament’s specialized committees nominated by SPLM and SPLM/A-IO. Ms. Kumba stated that the representatives of the South Sudan Opposition Alliance (SSOA) and the Other Political Parties (OPP) coalition were not included in the list, as their nominations had not been received. The Third Deputy Speaker of the parliament, a nominee of OPP, has yet to be appointed.
12. On 24 January, the members of the Transitional National Legislative Assembly and the Council of States debated and passed the 2022 emolument and privileges of the members of the Transitional National Legislature bill. The bill addresses the salaries and allowances of the members of the parliament, providing that salaries be raised by 8,500 per cent, from 9,400 South Sudanese pounds to 800,000 South Sudanese pounds per month.
Regional developments
13. On 25 January, the Peace and Security Council of the African Union held a meeting on South Sudan. In a communiqué issued after the meeting, the Peace and Security Council requested the African Union Commission to coordinate, with the United Nations and IGAD, a trilateral evaluation of the electoral and constitution-making needs of South Sudan.
Economic situation
14. The macroeconomic situation remained relatively stable, despite the deterioration of the foreign exchange rate from about 400 South Sudanese pounds to about 435 South Sudanese pounds per United States dollar (about 450 South Sudanese pounds per United States dollar on the parallel market). The newly appointed Central Bank Governor, Moses Makur Deng, pledged to preserve foreign exchange stability and increased hard currency auctions from $5 million to $13 million.
15. In December, inflation rose by 12.7 per cent, driven by an increase in the price of food and non-alcoholic beverages caused by fuel shortages, supply chain disruptions linked to COVID-19 restrictions, and floods. This was reflected in the very high degree of food insecurity in South Sudan, where the level of hunger was classified as alarming under the Global Hunger Index. On 24 January, the Governments of South Sudan and Saudi Arabia signed a general cooperation agreement with the objective of encouraging investment and the exchange of expertise. The current price of oil is about $90 per barrel, higher than the price of $63 per barrel assumed in the 2021/22 national budget.
South Sudan
South Sudan
South Sudan
South Sudan
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